Vol 6 | Issue 1 | Jan-Jun 2020 | page:12-16 – Nazia Khan, Mabongo M, Kolisa Y
Author: Nazia Khan, Mzubanzi Mabongo, Yoland Malele Kolisa
 Department of Maxillo-facial and oral surgery, School of Oral Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, South Africa.
2Department of Community Dentistry, University of The Witwatersrand,
Address of Correspondence
Dr. Nazia Khan,
Department of Maxillo-facial and oral surgery, School of Oral Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, South Africa
Introduction: Globally injuries constitute a major public health problem. In 2007, South Africa was listed as one of the most violent countries in the world, with more than 30 000 trauma-related deaths recorded annually.
Objective: Analysis of 5 371 trauma patients seen over a three-month period at Chris Hani Baragwanath Academic Hospital’s trauma unit was conducted. Objectives of the survey were to: Describe the patients socio-demographic profile ; Assess the frequency, distribution and types of injuries sustained; Determine the severity of injuries; Determine patient outcomes after initial treatment; and Determine factors related to traumatic injuries.
Methods: A cross-sectional study. Patients were admitted assessed and records were reviewed.
Results: A male to female ratio of 2:1 was recorded. Only 22.69% of the patients reported been employed. The median age was 28 years (interquartile range 14-40 years). The predominant mechanism of injury was due to falls (32.37%), followed by assault (27.44%). Transport-related injuries accounted 22.52%, while burn injuries accounted for 8.01%. Males were more likely to suffer any form of injury compared to females (p<0.05). Assault injuries were 4.23 times more likely to result in head and neck injuries compared to any other mechanism of injury (OR:4.23, CI 3.52-5.08, p <0.00). Upon initial admission to the unit, 43.04% of patients were discharged home after initial treatment, while 41.54% were transferred to the orthopedic unit.
Conclusion: Sex, employment status, age and area of residence influenced the pattern of traumatic injuries. Falls injuries and assault were the predominant mechanisms of injury. Males were more likely to suffer from any form of injury than females. Assault injuries were more than four times more likely to result in head and neck injuries than any other mechanism of injury. Therefore, ongoing surveillance and education campaigns are recommended.
Keywords: Surveillance; Trauma; Injuries.
1. Rahman F, Andersson R, Svanström L. Potential of using existing injury information for injury surveillance at the local level in developing countries: experiences from Bangladesh. Public Health. 2000 Mar 1;114(2):133-6.
2. Holder Y, World Health Organisation Staff. Injury surveillance guidelines. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2002.
3. World Health Organization. Injuries and violence: the facts 2014
4. Africa, S. (2019). 2011 Census products | Statistics South Africa. [online] Statssa.gov.za. Available at: http://www.statssa.gov.za/?page_id=3955 [Accessed 28 Mar. 2017].
5. MRC/UNISA Crime, Violence and Injury Lead Programme. A profile of fatal injuries in South Africa 2008 – Annual Report for South Africa based on National Injury Mortality Surveillance System. www.mrc.ac.za/crime/nimss07.PDF [Accessed 28 March 2017]
6. De Vries R, Reininga IH, Pieske O, Lefering R, El Moumni M, Wendt K. Injury mechanisms, patterns and outcomes of older polytrauma patients—An analysis of the Dutch Trauma Registry. PloS one. 2018 Jan 5;13(1):e0190587.
7. Mackenzie SG, Pless IB. CHIRPP: Canada’s principal injury surveillance program. Injury prevention. 1999 Sep 1;5(3):208-13.
8. Bradshaw D, Norman R, Lewin S, Joubert J, Schneider M, Nannan N, Groenewald P, Laubscher R, Matzopoulos R, Nojilana B, Pieterse D. Strengthening public health inSouth Africa: building a stronger evidence base for improving the health of the nation. South African Medical Journal. 2007;97(8):643-51.
9. Cardona VD. Trauma nursing: from resuscitation through rehabilitation. WB Saunders Company; 1994.
10. UF Health, University of Florida Health. (2019). Traumatic Injury. [online] Available at: https://m.ufhealth.org/traumatic-injury [Accessed 17 Mar. 2018].
11. Goosen J, Bowley DM, Degiannis E, Plani F. Trauma care systems in South Africa. Injury. 2003 Sep 1;34(9):704-8.
12. Gottschalk S. Triage—A South African perspective. Continuing Medical Education. 2004;22(6).
13. Hoyt DB, Coimbra R. Trauma systems. The Surgical Clinics of North America. 2007 Feb;87(1):21-35.
14. Bruce JC, Schmollgruber S, Eales J, Gassiep J, Doubell V. Injury surveillance at a level I trauma centre in Johannesburg, South Africa. Health SA gesondheid. 2003;8(3):3-12.
15. Chowdhury AH. A retrospective audit of trauma surgery at a level 1 trauma centre in South Africa (Doctoral dissertation, University of Cape Town 2012).
16. Nicol A, Knowlton LM, Schuurman N, Matzopoulos R, Zargaran E, Cinnamon J, Fawcett V, Taulu T, Hameed SM. Trauma surveillance in Cape Town, South Africa: an analysis of 9236 consecutive trauma center admissions. Jama Surgery. 2014 Jun 1;149(6):549-56.
17. Dhaffala A, Longo-Mbenza B, Kingu JH, Peden M, Kafuko-Bwoye A, Clarke M, Mazwai EL. Demographic profile and epidemiology of injury in Mthatha, South Africa. African health sciences. 2013;13(4):1144-8.
18. Jayaram A, Gururaj G, Rajanna MS, Venkatesh P. Findings of a injury surveillance programme done in a rural district setup in India. Injury Prevention. 2010 Sep 1;16(Suppl 1): A262-.
19. Donovan MM, Kong VY, Bruce JL, Laing GL, Bekker W, Manchev V, Smith M, Clarke DL. The Hybrid Electronic Medical Registry Allows Benchmarking of Quality of Trauma Care: A Five-Year Temporal Overview of the Trauma Burden at a Major Trauma Centre in South Africa. World journal of surgery. 2019 Apr 15;43(4):1014-21.
20. Mogajane BM, Mabongo M. Epidemiology of maxillofacial fractures at two maxillofacial units in South Africa. South African Dental Journal. 2018 Apr;73(3):132-6.
21. Goosen J, Bowley DM, Degiannis E, Plani F. Trauma care systems in South Africa. Injury. 2003 Sep 1;34(9):704-8.
22. The South African. (2019). Crime stats: More women, children are victims
of murder. [online] Available at: https://www.thesouthafrican.com/crime-stats-women-children-victims-murder/ [Accessed 22 Feb. 2019].
23. Udry JR. Why are males injured more than females? Injury Prevention. 1998 Jun 1;4(2):94-5.
24. Kynoch G. Apartheid nostalgia: Personal security concerns in South African townships. South African Crime Quarterly. 2003(5).
25. Nantulya VM, Muli-Musiime F. Kenya: Uncovering the social determinants of road traffic accidents. Challenging inequities in health: from ethics to action. 2001 Jul:211-5.
26. Chardoli M, Rahimi-Movaghar V. Analysis of trauma outcome at a university hospital in Zahedan, Iran using the TRISS method. East African medical journal. 2006;83(8):440 2.
27. Goel AP, Kumar SA, Bagga MK. Epidemiological and Trauma Injury and Severity Score (TRISS) analysis of trauma patients at a tertiary care centre in India. Nat Med J India. 2004 Jan 1;17:186-9.
28. Galano GJ, Vitale MA, Kessler MW, Hyman JE, Vitale MG. The most frequent traumatic orthopaedic injuries from a national pediatric inpatient population. Journal of Pediatric Orthopaedics. 2005 Jan 1;25(1):39-44.
29. Chalya PL, Mabula JB, Dass RM, Mbelenge N, Ngayomela IH, Chandika AB, Gilyoma JM. Injury characteristics and outcome of road traffic crash victims at Bugando Medical Centre in Northwestern Tanzania. Journal of trauma management & outcomes. 2012 Dec;6(1):1-8.
|How to Cite this article: Khan N, Mabongo M, Kolisa YM | Injury Survey at Chris Hani Baragwanath Academic Hospital, Soweto, South Africa | Trauma International | January-June 2020; 6(1):12-16.|