Efficacy and Safety of Tranexamic Acid Administration in Patients with Acute Traumatic Brain Injury: A Review of Current Literature
Vol 8 | Issue 2 | July-December 2022 | page: 06-12 | Kenzie Kao, Mohammed Alsabri
Authors: Kenzie Kao , Mohammed Alsabri 
 Saba University School of Medicine, Saba, Dutch Caribbean, Netherlands.  Department of Emergency Medicine, Al-Thawra Modern General Teaching Hospital, Sana’a City, Yemen.
Address of Correspondence
Dr. Mohammed Alsabri,
Department of Emergency Medicine, Al-Thawra Modern General Teaching Hospital, Sana’a City, Yemen.
Hypothesis: Early administration of tranexamic acid (TXA) reduces mortality in patients suffering from acute traumatic brain injury (TBI).
Methods: A structured search of PubMed and CENTRAL from inception until July 1st, 2022 was carried out seeking RCTs comparing the effects of TXA administration to placebo in patients suffering from TBI. The primary outcome tested was 28-day all-cause mortality. Secondary outcomes included intracranial hemorrhage growth and thromboembolic events.
Results: Eight RCTs involving a total of 14,714 patients met the inclusion criteria; 7573 patients received TXA while 7141 patients received a placebo. There were 1415 patient deaths (18.7%) in the TXA group and 1410 patient deaths (19.7%) in the placebo group. None of the included studies reported a significant reduction in 28-day all-cause mortality, however, they all shared positive trends toward superior outcomes in the intervention arms. Two of the included studies reported significant reductions in intracranial hemorrhage expansion in those patients treated with TXA, with four more studies reporting trends toward superior outcomes in the TXA groups. There was no evidence of increased incidence of thromboembolic events in the TXA groups in four of the five studies that reported relevant data, with one study representing 1.2% of total patients reporting an increased incidence of pulmonary emboli in the intervention group.
Conclusions: In patients suffering from acute TBI, early administration of TXA reduces intracranial hemorrhage growth and may have positive effects on mortality with no corresponding increase in thromboembolic events. Given these results, early administration of TXA in patients experiencing TBI is recommended in initial care.
Keywords: Tranexamic acid, Traumatic brain injury, Intracranial hemorrhage, Mortality, Disability
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|How to Cite this article: Kao K, Alsabri M | Efficacy and Safety of Tranexamic Acid Administration in Patients with Acute Traumatic Brain Injury: A Review of Current Literature | July-December 2022; 8(2): 06-12. https://doi.org/10.13107/ti.2022.v08i02.027|